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Unemployment rates in MENA have not seen any sharp deterioration since the 2009 crisis, but remain relatively high at around 10%. The Gulf's oil producing countries are exceptions, with unemployment running at around 3%-4% (rates that have, however sometimes doubled since 2009). For Saudi Arabia, the total rate is 6%, but it is twice as high (12%) if the Saudi population alone is considered.
Gross new lending jumped sharply in 2015. New lending is likely to be up by almost 80%. These fluctuations are largely due to remortgaging.
Household consumption of goods saw a marked fall of 1.1% in November, the biggest one-month fall since January 2014. The drop can be put down not only to the attacks, but also to the unseasonably high temperatures, which resulted in lower household spending on energy (down 5.6%) and clothing (down 4.7%).
Foreign direct investment (FDI) could bear the full brunt of an increase in post-Brexit regulatory uncertainty. The UK could become a less attractive destination for non-European investors that use their UK subsidiaries to operate throughout the EU as a whole. This is notably the case for the financial sector, which concentrates 27% of total FDI in the UK.
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